THE NAME OF NARBONNE and examples of some Gaulish words interpreted using Saxon roots of English by Henri Boudet
Translator’s Introduction: When considering Henri Boudet’s propositions in this essay, and in his main opus, La Vraie Langue Celtique et le Cromlech de Rennes-les-Bains, it should always be remembered that he is arguing from the PHONETIC point of view. Spelling and the written language are only of incidental importance in that it gives an idea or a clue as to how the language was spoken, heard and understood and then changed as new cultural influences made their marks. Abbé Boudet was a renowned and respected linguist and had several languages at his command, so his work is worth being looked at seriously.
When La Vraie Langue was published, at his own expense and with only minimal sales – most of the copies were given away – it was treated as a joke at best and with contempt at worst by his peers and it caused him to withdraw from SESA, so sure was he of his conclusions, which are all backed up by other linguistic sources. Having had the experience of learning three European languages phonetically myself, I think Boudet’s ideas deserve a hearing, particularly in the light of many recent discoveries regarding the intellectual development of the Neolithic peoples of Western Europe, especially our own islands.
Finally, it should be remembered that this is a hand-written essay. It was not published in his lifetime. To my knowledge, there is no guarantee that this is the final copy that he would have submitted for publication. It is possible that he would have made changes but there are no indications as to what they might have been. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
History does not mention the origin of the famous town of Narbonne and a thick veil shields our eyes from its beginnings. When almost six centuries BC, Hécatée de Milet called Narbonne “a market and a Celtic town”,(1) it is most likely that he noted this town’s commercial importance in ancient times; however, he did not tell us anything about the original, everyday work of its inhabitants. According to some medals on which an inscription is engraved in Iberian lettering, Narbonne also bore the name of Nedhena, or Nedherra. Did such a lovely name precede that of Narbon? Were they used simultaneously? The inscription in Iberian characters does not show that the name itself was Iberian; it could be Gaulish because its interpretation in Iberian does not offer any meaning clear enough to determine, with evidence, the likely profession of the Narbonnais, in those far-off times. According to the author of the essay on Iberian numismatics, (2) Nedhena was composed of the Iberian term ned or “net”, in which nothing is left out, and the augmentative hedhena “the most”. This vague explanation becomes convincing if we compare Nedhena with the Gothic word Nut-an “fisherman”. This term, which is quite explicit, introduces the clear idea of a profession that was much more likely to be determined by the fact that the town was situated on the banks of the lake called “lacus rubresus” by Mela and “lacus rubrensis” by Pliny (3) However, the town of Narbonne was not to be a simple collection of families devoted exclusively to fishing. As Hécatée de Milet gives it the qualification of “emporium” or “market”, we can speculate that business and trade was considerable there, especially with the ease of communication that it had with the sea at that time. The root “nut” from the Gothic “nutan” “fisherman”, does not indicate this characteristic of the commercial life of Nedhena; but an Anglo-Saxon root, the verb “net”, confirms both the significance of “fishing net” and that of “to earn”, “to imburse”. This second meaning of the Saxon “net”, confirming the evidence of Hécatée de Milet, allows us to go very far back into the past centuries, although without being able to fix a period when Narbonne (Nedhena) would not have been an important city and the central point of commercial operations in this part of Gaul. The second element that enters into the name written as “Ned-hena” is also explained by another verb containing Anglo-Saxon roots, the verb “win”, to profit from, to benefit by. In considering Nedhena as a commercial town, an emporium, this term could be translated as “net – win”, to make a profit; but in examining Ned-hena from another point of view, that of the main and usual profession of the inhabitants living on the banks of Lake Rubresus, we obtain the meaning, “profit from fishing with nets” – “net-win”(4), in such a way that Nedhena means both commercial town and town of fishermen. But how do we explain the replacing of the “W” by the aspirant “H”? We do this by referring to the custom of the Gauls, when writing, to use Greek letters in public matters and in special reports. (5) When they transcribed the name Net-win (ned-hena) in Iberian characters, they obviously wanted the W of win to be represented by the aspirant H. In the following words we can see how the rough meaning correlates when the aspirant H in Attic Greek is replaced by the initial V in Latin and W in English; έσπίρα, Latin vespera, English “evening”; ύγιης, Lat. vigeo, Engl. “to be vigorous”; έννυμι, Engl. “future”; έσω, Lat. vestio, Engl. “to dress”; ύδωρ, Engl. “water”; ύλαητέω, Engl. “to howl”; ύφος; Engl. “weave”; όλος, Engl. “whole”. As the Aeolian Greeks had no use for this rough meaning, they replaced it by the digamma F and so they wrote Fισπέρα Lat. vespera Engl. “evening”; Fοινος, Lat. vinum, Engl. “wine”; Fοιηος, Lat. vicus, , Engl. “village”, “wick”; őFις, Lat. ovis, Engl. “ewe”. So the digamma represented the rough spirit of Attica, as did the Latin “V” and the English “W”. Instead of the digamma, the Cretans used Β (ώόν, Cretan ώβέον “œuf” (egg)), but undoubtedly the pronunciation of this Β must have been very close to our V, and in modern Greek it sounds just like a V. There is nothing abnormal in the presence of the aspirate “H” in Ned-hena, and in its turn, the B, for its part, which is found in Nar-bon, which is synonymous with Ned-hena, makes it still more obvious that it has been derived from the Greek.(6) At first it seemed difficult to demonstrate that Ned-hena was synonymous with Nar-bon. However, the Saxon roots of English suffice to establish it by the sounds of the two elements, which comprise the name of Nar-bon. Ned-hena translates as net-win “to profit from net fishing” and Nar-bon also gives the meaning of “to profit from fishing”. It seems to me that in Nar-bon, the first part of Ned-hena, “Ned”, has been replaced by the word “Nar” or “snare”. The sibilant “S” of snare would be formed as the result of the principle of the least action, the general tendency, which leads to the softening of expressions, whose pronunciations would otherwise be hard. Thus it is that the Languedocian words, - “laouzo”, “brout”, “truca”, “nifla”, “bite” do not have the sibilant of the corresponding English words – slate (“laouzo”), sprout (“brout”), strike (“truca”), sniff (“nifla”), swift (“bite”). In “nix, nivis”, “limosus”, “form-ica” Latin dropped the sibilant kept by the English in their respective meanings of snow (nivis), slimy (limosus) and swarm (form-ica). The Spanish “mata” (kill) no longer has the sibilant of its English equivalent “smite”. The second part of Nar-bon, “-bon, is not a synonym of “hena”, the second element of Ned-hena, but is certainly the same word “win”, to profit from, to earn. The W of “win” is no longer represented by the aspirate “H”, as in Ned-hena, but it has been replaced by a “B”, as the Cretans did, so that Ned-hena (net-win) and Nar-bon (snare-win) express the same idea of “gain, profit from the net”, and so reveal the usual work of the inhabitants of this Celtic town. The fishing industry of Narbonne must have continued for many centuries; however, it was completely destroyed by the River Aude as little by little its silt filled Lake Rubresus, which was filled by its torrential waters. The mass of sediments carried by this torrent has been calculated to be approximately one million eight hundred thousand cubic metres per year; that is nearly a tenth of the product of the Rhone, whose basin has a surface almost twenty times as big. (7) The muddy state of the waters of the Aude at its mouth was so well observed by the ancient people that this river was given the name of “Atax”, “muddy water” – “wet”, gothic “ahva – thick” – “wet-thick”. (8) This word, “thick”, is probably the same as that which gave the town of Limoux its ancient name of “baxo” and of “baix”. (9) The name of Limoux (Latin: limosus, muddy, silty or slimy in English) is merely a synonym for the word “thick”, which comes into the composition of A-tac-s. Was it a simple allusion to the muddy ground trodden by the inhabitants of Limoux? Or perhaps it was a positive statement about the name of the River Atax at this point in its course? Going back towards the source of the Atax, the same term “baxo” or “baix” is present again, at St. Martin-Lys, also known under its name of St. Martin de Baissac. Without doubt, the presence of the preposition “de” in front of Baissac is a reminder of its ancient links with the town of Limoux. The ending “ac” of Baiss-ac is common in the place-names of the South of France and of Gaul. Translating it into English as “Wick” “village”, (Latin: vicus, Greek “otihos” house, formerly Foihos”), we are inclined to interpret Baiss-ac as “baix village” or “Atax village”. The following text from the chronicle of Eusebius, reproduced by N. Fonds-Lamothe in his study on the antiquity of Limoux, (10), confirms this translation: “P.T. Varro, vico atace in provincia Narbonensis nascitur” (P.T. Varro was born in the village of Atax in the province of Narbonne). It is particularly interesting to note the relationship between the name of Baiss-ac (Atax village), retained in the high valley of the Aude, and the affirmation of the chronicle of Eusebius “Varro, vico atace...nascitur” (Varro, in the village of Atax...was born).(11) According to an act of 1609 identifying the land dependent on the Château de Dournes, the Atax in this part of the valley bore the name of Alda, flumen Alda (the River Alda).(12) It was no longer a muddy river; its waters had quite a different character. I thought at first that the alder trees, which bordered its banks, constituted a sign indicating the meaning, which must be contained in the name of Alda. I now believe that sign to be deceiving. Since the word Atax sums up our ancestors’ assessment of the nature of the waters of this river at its mouth, it seems that the Alda, for its part, would establish their quality in the mountainous region. At Quillan in April, it is easy to see that the land is almost entirely deforested. As a result of this general deforestation, in rainy weather the streams fill the river with water full of muddy elements. It is quite different up-stream from Quillan. The mountains are covered with magnificent pine forests and the little watercourses contain less earthy material. Also the difference between the waters of the Atax and those of the Alda is very discernible. The waters of the Alda are lively, limpid and transparent. Moreover, there is an incontestable proof of the quality of the water as seen by the presence of trout, which is the fish that predominates in the watercourses in this region. Trout only live in waters that are healthy and clear, so it can be inferred that those of the Alda must be clear and salubrious, waters which could be running over grassland and crossing deep pine forests. Corresponding to this order of ideas is the English word “healthy” (Alda), (13) which forms the antithesis of Atax. Thus, simultaneously, this river has two names. However, it was the name of Alda, or Aude, that finally prevailed over that of Atax, and was passed on by the Latin and Greek geographers. ___________________________ It might be asked what strange chance allowed the two synonymous names of Nedhena and Narbon to be translated by the Saxon roots of English and convey a meaning which not only seems reasonable, but which is in perfect accord with the position of the town on the edges of Lake Rubresus and the likely profession of its inhabitants. The hidden reason for these juxtapositions is indicated by these words of Tacitus: Gothinos gallica lingua coarguit non esse Germanos. (The Gallic language of the Goths demonstrates that they are not German.)(14) The Goths spoke Gaulish and Tacitus infers that they were definitely not German. By these same words, was the great historian confirming that the language of the Germans was RADICALLY different from that of the Goths and the Gauls? He does not seem to think this was an exaggeration. He had obviously noted a difference between the two languages that was enough to distinguish the Goths from the Germans, and it was probably that singular differential, which he expressed by these words; “Gothinos gallica lingua coarguit non esse Germanos.” In order to give our interpretation of Tactitus’ words more clarity, let us make a simple change in the names of the two peoples mentioned by the illustrious writer and say “The English language which is spoken by the Americans of the United States proves that they are not German.” While it may be obvious, if not actually spoken thus, that we are establishing a radical difference between the Americans and the Germans, it is not demonstrated beyond question that the English and German languages do not belong to the same family, known as Germanic. Likewise, when writing “The Gaulish language which the Goths spoke proves that they are not German”, Tacitus states that there is a difference between the Goths and the Germans, but he does not show that the Gothic language and the Germanic language are not two branches of the same family, the source of which is unknown. Thus, it becomes clear how and why the Saxon roots of English might be used to translate the topographical terms of our Gaul, since according to Tacitus, the Gothic speech was of the same family as that to which both the Gaulish speech and the Saxon roots of English belonged, known and accepted under the name of Germanic. _____________________________
By using the Saxon roots of English when trying to translate the words, which the Greek and Latin writers tell us were Gaulish, it is easy to put this conclusion to the test. Roget de Belloguet has collected them in his Gaulish Glossary and it is from this glossary that I have taken them.
(Translators note: The Kymmerique as elaborated here is very similar, although not identical, to the modern Cymraeg, i.e. Welsh. Readers wishing to verify the truth of these meanings will find that a good Welsh dictionary will confirm most of the definitions, albeit with some stretch of the imagination. Where applicable, to make understanding easier, I have written the Welsh phonetic pronunciation and underlined the stressed syllable, e.g.: uchedydd is pronounced “ikhedith”, with the “i” always shortened as in “is”; “U” is always pronounced as a shortened “i”; “Y” is pronounced “u” as in “up” when in the stressed syllable, and as a shortened “i” in any other part of the word, thus kywain” is pronounced “kuwine”; “ai” is always pronounced “eye”. The stressed syllable is always the penultimate one.
For those of you who have not studied formal language construction, syntax refers to the elements that make up the structure of a sentence, i.e. nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, etc. and their order and relationship to each other in the sentence – subject, object, descriptive (adjective or adverb), possessive, etc. also known as the case. The genitive is the possessive case – yours, mine, etc. A substantive is a noun, which is used to express an abstract idea, i.e. to give it substance.)
1. COVINUS or Covinnus: Breton chariot armed with a scythe. Anglo-Saxon root – “cow” - to terrify; “wain” – a chariot; “cow-wain” – terrifying chariot, chariot of fear. (Grammatical construction: Order of syntax - Saxon adjective or genitive.) “Kymmrique, KYWAIN, (kuwine) to cart, particularly the harvest”, said Gibson; GWAIN, (gwine) transport, vehicle.” (15) In English, “kywain” would be translated as “cow” - the animal, “wain” – a cart, that is to say a wagon pulled by oxen. The Kym. “gwain”, vehicle, is the same word as the English “wain” with the usual change of the V and W in GW. (16)
2 AREPENNIS or ARAPENNIS, an agrarian measure, a Roman demi-arpent. Anglo-Saxon root: “ear” – to farm, to labour; “open” – to divide; “ear-open” – division of the crops. (Syntax order - Saxon genitive: the verb “to open” is also found in the Apennines, the chain of mountains which divide Italy in two running the whole length of the country. “Kym. ARU,(ari) to labour; PENN, head, which also means “end”, “extremity”. (17) The meaning in Kymmrique is “end of labour”, ARU-PENN, and not “division of crops”, division being essential to agrarian measurements
3 CEVA, cow from the Alps, a small but excellent milker. Anglo-Saxon root: “cow” – the farm animal. “Kym. BU (Bi). Cow; Armorican: BU, cow. (18)
4 ALAUDA, (alouder) the skylark, the hoopoe. Anglo-Saxon root: ALOUD – a loud or high voice, loud. This is obviously an allusion to the loud song that this bird makes when rising perpendicularly in the air. In the Languedoc, this bird has the name of laouzeto: (the D becomes Z).In Kym. HEDYDD (hedith), UCHEDYDD (ikedith), names which simply indicate the idea of flying, of flying aloft; in Cornish, EWIDIT. (19)
5 BENNA, a kind of vehicle, from which comes COMBENNONES, meaning those which are found together. Anglo-Saxon root: “wain” – vehicle, chariot. The W has become B as in Languedocian. Kym. BEN or MEN, chariot. (20)
6 ESSEDUM or ESSEDA, sort of Gaulish chariot for captive queens and princes. Anglo-Saxon root: “high”, “height”, “seat” – high-seat, height-seat. (Syntax order: adjective or Saxon genitive.) Kym. ASSETA, to sit; Cornish: ESEDHE.(21)
7. SYGUNNAI, riverside people of the Danube, whose name means markets or merchants in the language of the Upper Ligurians, who lived above Marseille... I have not found any word that is analogous to Sygunnai which approaches the idea of “merchant” in our Celtic idioms. Nothing even in the Basque language. (22) Anglo-Saxon root – “seek” “win” - to look for gain (Syntax order: verb and object). The word “win” is the same as that which comes into the composition of NED-HENA and NAR-BON. It might be useful to note that the patronymic name of SEGONNE is quite widespread in the department of the Aude.
8. OUERTRAGOI – a type of Celtic dog, so named for its running speed – Latin – Vertragus. Anglo-Saxon root – worth, excellently, to follow the trail. (Syntax order - adverb and verb or adjective and substantive). VER (big), stressed syllable; Irish CRAIG (Zeuss) foot, trace, K.pl. Craet, Craget, Z.) (23)
9 CIRCIUS (kerkius), or CERCIUS (kerkius). According to Cato, a very violent wind in Gaul, so named after the whirlwinds, which it forms, particularly in Narbonnaise Gaul. (Plin. II.46); circio, wind which blows between the north and the west. (Gloss. D’Isid.). In the Low Languedoc it has kept the name of Cerce and of Cers. The Gaulish word could be composed of two different ideas: firstly Kym. – KYRCH (kerkh), sudden emergence, attack, KYRCHU (kerkhi), to assail... Armorican – KERCHOUT, to look lively, to search in a lively manner; secondly that of whirlwind: Kym. – KYLCH (kilkh), circle... Irish: KERKENN, cycle, circle. (24). Anglo-Saxon root – SHOWER, to rain; - SHOVE, to push forcefully: SHOWER-SHOVE. This is unquestionably a true description of the action of the Cers wind in the Languedoc. There is a difficulty with this interpretation. What exactly are the Latin consonants represented by the soft English sounds of “ch” and “sh”? For lack of well established laws and assured principles, we might relate them to the straightforward comparison of certain Latin and English words. In the expressions, which follow, we can see the Latin consonants “g”, “c” and the group “sc” corresponding to the English sibillants “ch” and “sh”: Latin/Ligo, English. leash, link, attach;Curtus, short Doceo, teach Cerasum, cherry Gena, chin Gelu, chill Fagus, beech Piscis, fish Discus, dish Thus, the Latin consonants “g” and “c” would represent the English “”ch” and “sh” and, according to these examples, it would not be surprising if the soft sounds of “shower” and “shove” were translated exactly by the two “c”s of the word cir-cius passed down by the Latin peoples. (Translator’s. Note: Taking Italian pronunciation as a base, it is possible that the “c” followed by “e” or “i” was pronounced “ch”, and that “g” followed by “e” and “i” was pronounced as “j”, which brings the Latin and English pronunciations even closer.)
10. ACUM “water”, in MAUZACUM; Ach water (Ow. Pughe) Arm. AGEN, spring; Irish, AIGEN, the sea. (25) Anglo-Saxon root WET, (26) WASH, to bathe, marshland.
11. GERMANI, The Germans. It is a new name, said Tacitus, given to the first people who reached the Rhine and dispossessed the Gauls. Born from the fear inspired by the conquerors, this name, which was adopted successively by the tribes, extended to the whole nation. (27) (This is Boudet’s translation of Tacitus as given in the accompanying note. Trans.) The basic term contained in Germani should probably be translated by the Latin word metus “terror”, “fear” used by Tacitus, a victore ob metum (to victory by fear). In response to the thoughts of Tacitus, the Anglo-Saxon roots offer the verb SCARE – to terrify, to make afraid, to make fearful. The dropping of the first sibilant of s-care could well be due to the Latin transmission. The word MANY “people”, could complete the name of GERMANS and the whole expression “scare-many” signifies “people who are frightening”, “people who are terrifying”. “Having originally attributed the meaning of “inhabitants of mountainous forests” to this term (Germani), Zeuss has now adopted another etymology, which he says is simply that of neighbours.” Kym. Gar, Ger, Irish – Gar, formerly Gair, meaning near, close by. J. Grimm and Léo for their part, have each produced a new meaning which is at least linked to a characteristic indicated by Tacitus, the barritus, or the terrifying war cry of the Germans, yelled out from the hollow of their shields and guaranteed to grip the imagination of the conquered, a very special cry that several Roman troops then put to good use. Kym. Ger, Garm, - to cry often: Germain, to cry often; Garmiaw – to make a cry. (26)
12. GOTHINI – Since the name of the Goths has not been removed from the Gaulish name designations, being as they spoke the Gaulish language, I think I could and should attempt its interpretation. Anglo-Saxon root – GET, GOT, to bring victory, WIN, to gain – GOT-WIN, to gain victory. (Syntax order – Saxon genitive). The W of WIN, in Gothini, is reproduced in the form of the aspirate H, as in Ned-hena (Narbonne). This name seems very much in agreement with the warrior spirit of this people. It recalls the proud motto, which is contained in the name of the CELTS (Anglo-Saxon root QUELL, to vanquish, conquer) and which is so appropriate to rouse in their hearts the indomitable courage which they deployed on all their battlefields.
I could mention a considerable number of Gaulish terms, which are explained by Anglo-Saxon roots, but it seems to me that the twelve words that I have used to provide the proof of the translation, are a sufficient number to establish the value of the conclusion, which I have deduced from the words of Tacitus: “Gothinos gallica lingua coarguit non esse Germanos”, (the Gallic language of the Goths demonstrates that it is not German) and the secret influences that thus enable us to find, in NED-HENA and NAR-BON, a reasonable phrase to describe the former profession of the inhabitants of this Celtic town.
Translated by Gay Roberts
Notes and References. (1) Hécatée de Milet. Freq. P.19 – Νάρβιν, έμπόριον Ηαϊπόλι; Ηελτιιή. (2) Boudard. Essai sur la numismatique Ibérienne. (3) Pomp. Mela. Lib.II Gallia Narbonnensis – Plin. L.III.C.V. (4) The composition of this word is based on the order of the Saxon genitive (5) Caesar. De bell. Gall. Lib.IV. 17. (6) The correlation with the written Iberian numismatic characters does not in itself prove that it has to be Saxon, they themselves being derived from Greek words. (7) Ch. Lonthéric. The dead towns of the Gulf of Lyon (8) Le Bech. Moela calls the watercourse of the Eastern Pyrenees “Bichis”. He qualifies it as being very violent in its flood: “parva flumina belis et bichis: ubi accrevere persaeva” (Pomp. Moel. Lib. II Galla Narbonensis). It even has the root “thick – trouble, muddy”. The second element which enters into the composition of Λουχο-τεχία (Lutetia, Paris, also seems to have the same root “thick”: thus one could translate Λουχο-τεχία as “limon de marais” (English “loch” – “thick”) (9) Memoires of the Société des arts et des sciences de Carcassonne Vol 1, p.117. (10) Op. Cit. P.114. (11) Did the author of the chronicle of Eusebius write Vico atace by mistake, instead of Vico atacino? If it should read vico atacino, it would be an unremarkable village in the Atax region, which gave birth to Varro. (12) Louis Fedié: Le Comté de Razès: Chateau de Dournes. (13) The aspirate “H” of “healthy” has been dropped as in those the Latin words olus - vegetable, anser - goose, which existed first of all in the form of holus, hanser. (14) Tac. De mor. Germ. 43. (15) Roget de Belloguet, Glossaire gaulois No. 15. (16) D’Arbois de Jubainville, Etudes grammaticales sur les langues celtiques. Origin of the vowels and consonants of the modern Breton of France. P. 18. (17) Gloss. Gaul. No. 19. (18) Op. Cit. No. 13. (19) Glossaire Gaulois No. 17. (20) Op. Cit. No. 48. (21) Op. Cit. No. 75. (22) Glossaire gaulois. n: 80. (If the pronunciation is as in Welsh, i.e. “Suginai” (hard “g”) and S is changed to B, then bargen, in Welsh, pronounced bargain, as in English, meaning a deal, or a transaction, offers a possible verification. Trans.) (23 ) Op. Cit. n: 105. (24) Glossaire gaulois; n: 45. (25) Glossaire gaulois; n: 240. (26) In the word WET, “t” is replaced by “c”: comparative Grammar: Bopp § 13, 14. (27) Germania vocabulum recens et nuper additum; quoniam qui primi Rhenum transgressi Gallos expulerunt Germani vocati sunt. Ha nationis nomen non gentis evaluisse paulatim ut omnes primum a victore ob metum, mox a se ipsis invento nomine Germani vocati sunt. (Tac. Germ. 2) (28) Gloss. Gaul. N: 429. The text on these two pages is exactly the same as the first two pages of the original text except that two small drawings have been inserted at the beginning of the second and third paragraphs. These drawing are thought to contain important information by some. What this information is I do not know, nor do I know if it was Henri Boudet himself who drew them.
Editors Note – Below are two pages with the drawings added. To my knowledge the whole document is not available. The work of Franck Marie is also included here, as he is the only person so far to have attempted a decipherment. The editor is unable to contact Franck Marie for permission to reproduce various diagrams from his book ‘Critical Studies’. However in the spirit of research I have gone ahead to use them. If anyone knows the conact email or other form of contact for Franck Marie please forward it so that official permission can be sought.
By following the pictograms, and where the arrows are pointing Marie believes we are being directed to follow a ‘route’ and that using the information provided we are to follow this route over the landscape thus:
For eample – Illustration Number 13 (even though it is labelled 15) Marie interprets as indicating an isosceles triangle with the number 796 in roman numerals – which he feels designates PECH CARDOU and its altitude. Illustration Number 17 he interprets as the sun, its rays of light with the number 12 in roman numerals, which indicates the ‘hour of the midday sun’. Illustration Number 3 is the Tomb at Pontils (ie Poussin’s Tomb) Illustration Number 5 is the standing stone Peyro- Dreito (at Pontils) at Peyrolles Illustration Number 7 represents a spider (araignée) on the banks of a river – he interprets this as the church and the cemetery of Rennes (les Bains) by the River Sals. The ‘spider’ is orientated to 74 degrees North East and 49 degrees North West.
Accordingly Marie deciphers the Boudet script and its added pictograms as suggesting the following: ‘The stolen gold is to be found on the land of the Voisins. On the perimeter signified by Rennes-le-Château, Rennes-les-Bains and Arques, find again Cardou, find Kairolo, at midday, on the 17th January, one learns by courtesy of the tomb of Pontils that you must go to the country of the shepherds of Arcady for you to understand you must translate the epitaph of the marquise of Blanchefort’